13 of What are dark leafy green vegetables

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What are dark leafy green vegetables: Leafy green vegetables such as kale, spinach, Swiss chard, and bok choy are high in vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Adding a variety of greens to your diet may help boost brain health and lower your risk of heart disease, cancer, and high blood pressure.

Leafy green vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet. They’re packed with vitamins, minerals and fiber but low in calories.

Eating a diet rich in leafy greens can offer numerous health benefits including reduced risk of obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure and mental decline (1Trusted Source).

Here are 13 of the healthiest leafy green vegetables to include in your diet.

1. Kale

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Kale is considered one of the most nutrient-dense vegetables on the planet due to its many vitamins, minerals and antioxidants.

For example, one cup (67 grams) of raw kale packs 684% of the Daily Value (DV) for vitamin K, 206% of the DV for vitamin A and 134% of the DV for vitamin C (2).

It also contains antioxidants such as lutein and beta-carotene, which reduce the risk of diseases caused by oxidative stress (3Trusted Source).

To benefit most from all that kale has to offer, it’s best consumed raw since cooking can reduce its nutrient profile (4Trusted Source).

Nutrition and Vitamin

The table below shows the amount of each nutrient in a cup of boiled kale, weighing around 118 gramsTrusted Source (g), without added salt.

It also shows how much an adult needs of each nutrient, according to the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for AmericansTrusted Source. Requirements vary according to the individual’s sex and age.

NutrientAmount in 1 cupDaily adult requirement
Energy (calories)42.51,800–3,000
Carbohydrate in grams (g)6.3, including 1.4 g of sugar130
Fiber (g)4.722.4–33.6
Protein (g)3.546–56
Calcium in milligrams (mg)1771,000–1,200
Iron (mg)1.08–18
Magnesium (mg)29.5320–420
Phosphorus (mg)49.6700
Potassium (mg)1704,700
Sodium (mg)18.92,300
Zinc (mg)0.38–11
Copper (mcg)0.8900
Manganese (mg)0.61.8–2.3
Selenium in micrograms (mcg)1.155
Vitamin C (mg)2175–90
Folate (mcg DFE)76.7400
Betaine (mg)0.4No data
Beta carotene (mcg)2,040No data
Lutein + zeaxanthin (mcg)5,880No data
Vitamin E (mg)1.915
Vitamin K (mcg)49490–120
Vitamin A (mcg RAE)172700–900

Kale also provides a range of antioxidants and B vitamins.


Kale is rich in minerals, antioxidants and vitamins, particularly vitamins A, C and K. To reap the most benefits, it’s best eaten raw, as cooking reduces the nutritional profile of the vegetable.

2. Microgreens

Microgreens are immature greens produced from the seeds of vegetables and herbs. They typically measure 1–3 inches (2.5–7.5 cm).

Since the 1980s, they have often been used as a garnish or decoration, but they have many more uses.

Despite their small size, they’re full of color, flavor and nutrients. In fact, one study found that microgreens contain up to 40 times more nutrients compared to their mature counterparts. Some of these nutrients include vitamins C, E and K (5Trusted Source).

Microgreens can be grown in the comfort of your own home all year round, making them easily available.


Microgreens are immature greens, which have been popular since the 1980s. They’re flavorful and packed with nutrients like vitamins C, E and K. What’s more, they can be grown all year.

3. Collard Greens

Collard greens are loose leaf greens, related to kale and spring greens. They have thick leaves that taste slightly bitter.

They’re similar in texture to kale and cabbage. In fact, their name comes from the word “colewort.”

Collard greens are a good source of calcium and the vitamins A, B9 (folate) and C. They’re also one of the best sources of vitamin K when it comes to leafy greens. In fact, one cup (190 grams) of cooked collard greens packs 1,045% of the DV for vitamin K (6).

Vitamin K is known for its role in blood clotting. In addition, more research is being done regarding its ability to improve bone health (7Trusted Source).

One study in 72,327 women aged 38–63 found that those with vitamin K intakes below 109 mcg per day had a significantly increased risk of hip fractures, suggesting a link between this vitamin and bone health (8Trusted Source).


Collard greens have thick leaves and are bitter in taste. They’re one of the best sources of vitamin K, may reduce blood clots and promote healthy bones.

4. Spinach

Spinach is a popular leafy green vegetable and is easily incorporated into a variety of dishes, including soups, sauces, smoothies and salads.

Its nutrient profile is impressive with one cup (30 grams) of raw spinach providing 181% of the DV for vitamin K, 56% of the DV for vitamin A and 13% of the DV for manganese (9).

It’s also packed with folate, which plays a key role in red blood cell production and the prevention of neural tube defects in pregnancy (10Trusted Source).

One study on the neural tube defect spina bifida found that one of the most preventable risk factors for this condition was a low intake of folate during the first trimester of pregnancy (11Trusted Source).

Along with taking a prenatal vitamin, eating spinach is a great way to increase your folate intake during pregnancy.


Spinach is a popular leafy green vegetable that can be used in a variety of ways. It’s a great source of folate, which may prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, during pregnancy.

5. Cabbage

Cabbage is formed of clusters of thick leaves that come in green, white and purple colors.

It belongs to the Brassica family, along with Brussels sprouts, kale and broccoli (12Trusted Source).

Vegetables in this plant family contain glucosinolates, which give them a bitter flavor.

Animal studies have found that foods that contain these plant compounds may have cancer-protective properties, especially against lung and esophageal cancer (13Trusted Source14Trusted Source).

Another benefit of cabbage is that it can be fermented and turned into sauerkraut, which provides numerous health benefits, such as improving your digestion and supporting your immune system. It may even aid weight loss (15Trusted Source16Trusted Source17Trusted Source18Trusted Source).


Cabbage has thick leaves and comes in various colors. It has cancer-protective properties and can be turned into sauerkraut, which offers additional health benefits.

6. Beet Greens

Since the Middle Ages, beets have been claimed to be beneficial for health.

Indeed, they have an impressive nutrient profile, but while beets are commonly used in dishes, the leaves are often ignored.

This is unfortunate, considering that they’re edible and rich in potassium, calcium, riboflavin, fiber and vitamins A and K. Just one cup (144 grams) of cooked beet greens contains 220% of the DV for vitamin A, 37% of the DV for potassium and 17% of the DV for fiber (19).

They also contain the antioxidants beta-carotene and lutein, which may reduce the risk of eye disorders, such as macular degeneration and cataracts (20Trusted Source21Trusted Source).

Beet greens can be added to salads, soups or sauteed and eaten as a side dish.


Beet greens are edible green leaves found on the tip of beets. They’re full of nutrients, including antioxidants that may support eye health.

7. Watercress

Watercress is an aquatic plant from the Brassicaceae family and thus similar to arugula and mustard greens.

It’s said to have healing properties and has been used in herbal medicine for centuries. However, no human studies have confirmed these benefits so far.

Test-tube studies have found watercress extract to be beneficial in targeting cancer stem cells and impairing cancer cell reproduction and invasion (22Trusted Source23Trusted Source).

Due to its bitter and slightly spicy flavor, watercress makes a great addition to neutrally flavored foods.


Watercress has been used in herbal medicine for centuries. A few test-tube studies suggest it may be beneficial in cancer treatment, but no human studies have confirmed these effects.

8. Romaine Lettuce

Romaine lettuce is a common leafy vegetable with sturdy, dark leaves with a firm center rib.

It has a crunchy texture and is a popular lettuce, particularly in Caesar salads.

It’s a good source of vitamins A and K, with one cup (47 grams) providing 82% and 60% of the DVs for these vitamins respectively (24).

What’s more, research in rats showed that lettuce improved their levels of blood lipids, potentially reducing the risk of heart disease. Further studies need to investigate these benefits in people (25Trusted Source).


Romaine lettuce is a popular lettuce found in many salads. It’s rich in vitamins A and K, and a study in rats suggests it may improve blood lipid levels.

9. Swiss Chard

Swiss chard has dark-green leaves with a thick stalk that is red, white, yellow or green. It’s often used in Mediterranean cooking and belongs to the same family as beets and spinach.

It has an earthy taste and is rich in minerals and vitamins, such as potassium, manganese and the vitamins A, C and K (26).

Swiss chard also contains a unique flavonoid called syringic acid — a compound that may be beneficial for lowering blood sugar levels (27).

In two small studies in rats with diabetes, oral administration of syringic acid for 30 days improved blood sugar levels (2829).

However, it’s important to note that these were minor animal studies and that human research supporting the claim that syringic acid may aid blood sugar control is lacking.

While many people typically throw away the stems of the Swiss chard plant, they’re crunchy and highly nutritious.

Next time, try adding all parts of the Swiss chard plant to dishes such as soups, tacos or casseroles.


Swiss chard is rich in color and often incorporated into Mediterranean cooking. It contains the flavonoid syringic acid, which may be beneficial for reducing blood sugar levels. However, human-based research on its effectiveness is lacking.

10. Arugula

Arugula is a leafy green from the Brassicaceae family that goes by many different names, such as rocket, colewort, roquette, rucola and rucoli.

It has a slightly peppery taste and small leaves that can easily be incorporated into salads or used as a garnish. It can also be used cosmetically and medicinally (30Trusted Source).

Like other leafy greens, it’s packed with nutrients such as pro-vitamin A carotenoids and vitamins B9 and K (31).

It’s also one of the best sources of dietary nitrates, a compound that turns into nitric oxide in your body.

Though the benefits of nitrates are debated, some studies have found that they may help increase blood flow and reduce blood pressure by widening your blood vessels (32Trusted Source).


Arugula is a leafy green vegetable that goes by several different names, including rocket and rucola. It’s rich in vitamins and naturally occurring nitrates, which may help reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow.

11. Endive

Endive (pronounced “N-dive”) belongs to the Cichorium family. It’s less well known than other leafy greens, possibly because it’s difficult to grow.

It’s curly, crisp in texture and has a nutty and mildly bitter flavor. It can be eaten raw or cooked.

Just one-half cup (25 grams) of raw endive leaves packs 72% of the DV for vitamin K, 11% of the DV for vitamin A and 9% of the DV for folate (33).

It’s also a source of kaempferol, an antioxidant that has been shown to reduce inflammation and inhibit the growth of cancer cells in test-tube studies (34Trusted Source35Trusted Source).


Endive is a lesser-known leafy green vegetable that is curly and crisp in texture. It contains several nutrients, including the antioxidant kaempferol, which may reduce cancer cell growth.

12. Bok Choy

Bok choy is a type of Chinese cabbage.

It has thick, dark-green leaves that make a great addition to soups and stir-fries.

Bok choy contains the mineral selenium, which plays an important role in cognitive function, immunity and cancer prevention (36Trusted Source).

In addition, selenium is important for proper thyroid gland function. This gland is located in your neck and releases hormones that play a key role in metabolism (37Trusted Source).

An observational study associated low levels of selenium with thyroid conditions such as hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis and enlarged thyroid (38Trusted Source).


Bok choy is popular in China and often used in soups and stir-fries. It contains the mineral selenium, which benefits your brain health, immunity, cancer protection and thyroid health.

13. Turnip Greens

Turnip greens are the leaves of the turnip plant, which is a root vegetable similar to beetroot.

These greens pack more nutrients than the turnip itself, including calcium, manganese, folate and the vitamins A, C and K (39).

They have a strong and spicy flavor and are often enjoyed cooked rather than raw.

Turnip greens are considered a cruciferous vegetable, which have been shown to decrease your risk of health conditions, such as heart disease, cancer and inflammation (40Trusted Source41Trusted Source42Trusted Source).

Turnip greens also contain several antioxidants including gluconasturtiin, glucotropaeolin, quercetin, myricetin and beta-carotene — which all play a role in reducing stress in your body (43Trusted Source).

Turnip greens can be used as a replacement for kale or spinach in most recipes.


Turnip greens are the leaves of the turnip plant and are considered a cruciferous vegetable. Studies have found that they may decrease stress in your body and reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer and inflammation.


  1. Nutrient Powerhouses: Dark leafy green vegetables are like the superheroes of the veggie world! They’re packed with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants that can give your body the fuel it needs to conquer the day. It’s like upgrading from a bicycle to a rocket ship!
  2. Heart Health Heroes: Want to keep your ticker ticking happily? Look no further than dark leafy greens! They’re known for their ability to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. Say goodbye to heartburn and hello to heart-healthy goodness!
  3. Gut-Friendly Goodness: Got a grumpy gut? Dark leafy greens can help soothe your stomach and keep things running smoothly. They’re like the friendly neighborhood plumber, unclogging your pipes and restoring balance to your digestive system.
  4. Weight Loss Warriors: Trying to shed those extra pounds? Dark leafy greens are your new best friends! They’re low in calories but high in fiber, helping you feel full and satisfied without packing on the pounds. It’s like hitting the jackpot at the salad bar!
  5. Bone Builders: Want to keep your skeleton strong and sturdy? Load up on dark leafy greens! They’re rich in calcium, vitamin K, and other bone-building nutrients that can help prevent osteoporosis and keep your bones as solid as a fortress.
  6. Brain Boosters: Need a little mental pick-me-up? Dark leafy greens have got your back! They’re packed with brain-boosting nutrients like folate and vitamin E, helping improve memory and cognitive function. Say goodbye to brain fog and hello to mental clarity!
  7. Versatile Veggies: Dark leafy greens are like the chameleons of the culinary world; they can adapt to any dish! Whether you’re tossing them in a salad, blending them into a smoothie, or sautéing them with garlic and olive oil, they always add a delicious pop of flavor and color.


  1. Bitter Battle: Let’s be real, not everyone is a fan of the slightly bitter taste of dark leafy greens. It’s like trying to convince a kid to eat broccoli; sometimes you have to get creative with your tactics.
  2. Texture Trouble: Some people might find the texture of dark leafy greens a bit off-putting, especially when they’re raw or undercooked. It’s like trying to chew through a forest; not exactly the most appetizing experience.
  3. Prep Predicaments: Cleaning and prepping dark leafy greens can be a bit of a hassle. From washing off dirt and debris to removing tough stems and ribs, it’s like trying to tame a wild jungle in your kitchen sink.
  4. Storage Struggles: Dark leafy greens have a tendency to wilt and spoil faster than you can say “kale yeah!” Storing them properly can be a challenge, especially if you’re short on fridge space or forgetful when it comes to meal planning.
  5. Gas Galore: Brace yourself for some epic toots! Dark leafy greens are notorious for causing gas and bloating, especially if you’re not used to eating them regularly. Consider it a friendly reminder to keep things well-ventilated!
  6. Kidney Stone Risk: For some people, consuming large amounts of dark leafy greens, particularly those high in oxalates like spinach and Swiss chard, can increase the risk of kidney stone formation. It’s like playing a game of dietary roulette; you never know when your luck might run out.
  7. Allergy Alerts: Like with any food, there’s always a chance of allergies lurking in the shadows. Some people might be sensitive to certain dark leafy greens, experiencing symptoms like itching, swelling, or difficulty breathing. Always listen to your body and consult a doctor if you suspect an allergy.

The Bottom Line (What are dark leafy green vegetables)

Leafy green vegetables are packed with important and powerful nutrients that are critical for good health.

Fortunately, many leafy greens can be found year round, and they can easily be incorporated into your meals — in surprising and diverse ways.

To reap the many impressive health benefits of leafy greens, make sure to include a variety of these vegetables in your diet.

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